Treaties Recognition Week and Treaty 3

Kenora, ON — Ogichidaa Francis Kavanaugh, Grand Chief of Treaty 3 says it’s important for everyone to learn about the treaty relationship between First Nations and the Crown during the fourth annual Treaty Recognition Week that began Monday.

Treaties Recognition Week is the first week of November and was introduced in 2016 to honour the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.

“Treaty 3 is a sacred relationship and a trilateral agreement between our Creator, Grand Council Treaty 3 and the Crown,” said Grand Chief Kavanaugh. “We continue to honour the treaty and consented to share our land and the natural resources but we never ceded our land to the federal government entirely, nor did we ever give up our sovereignty as an independent nation. They Treaties are as relevant today as they were when they were signed, so I urge everyone to learn more about our own Treaty 3.”

Treaty 3 was established over the course of three different meetings, beginning in 1871. The treaty was signed by First Nations and a representative of the Crown at the third meeting, in 1873.

Treaty 3 was an agreement entered into on October 3, 1873, by Chief Mikiseesis (Little Eagle) on behalf of the Ojibwe First Nations and Queen Victoria. The treaty involved a vast tract of Ojibwe territory, including large parts of what is now northwestern Ontario and a small part of eastern Manitoba, to the Government of Canada.

Today in Canada there are approximately 70 treaties between 371 First Nations and the Crown. The treaties represent the rights of more than 500,000 Indigenous people. Since the creation of Canada’s Claims Policy in 1973 there have been 16 comprehensive land claims settled.

For more information on Treaties across Ontario, please visit:

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